Please respond to my classmate Marc on his
A-B) 1. What role did women play in the Scientific Revolution?
(C) 2. What did Copernicus and Galileo contribute to a new vision of the universe, and how did it differ from the Ptolemaic conception of the universe?
(D-E) 3. How were the ideas of the Scientific Revolution spread, and what impact did they have on society and religion?
(F-H) 4. Why was the Roman Catholic Church opposed to the findings of Galileo and other scientists of his era? How did Galileo defend his work? (Make sure to consider the "Opposing Viewpoints" reading on p.377-378.)
Before the era of modern science early people struggled to understand the world around them and above them. Why are we here? Are we the center of the universe? Why do things happen? Is there really a god? Etc. There have been many important figures, both male and female, that laid down the foundation for modern science, astronomy, physics, and mathematics; some women performed research and experimentation of their own. These women were all upper class, because they had the access to education and science, though this did not stop society from trying to keep them down by not allowing women to hold important positions or progress in their field. This whole era is called the scientific revolution that took place between 1543-1687.
Early people looked at the heavens and wondered exactly what they were looking at; it was widely accepted that our earth was the center of the galaxy because our stars seemed to be revolving around earth, including our sun. This came to be a shock when, “In the spring of 1609, Galileo Galilei Italian natural philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, heard that in the Netherlands an instrument had been invented that showed distant things as though they were nearby. By trial and error, he quickly figured out the secret of the invention and made his own three-powered spyglass from lenses for sale in spectacle makers’ shops.” Galileo was able to see that earth was not the center of the universe but “the sun is.” This idea was reinforced with the studies of Nicolaus Copernicus; Copernicus argued that “Earth is a planet which, besides orbiting the Sun annually, also turns once daily on its own axis; and that very slow long-term changes in the direction of this axis account for the precession of the equinoxes.” This model of our solar system is called heliocentric, or “Sun-centered,”. Galileo and Copernicus have made many discoveries about our solar system that what against the Roman Catholic Churches belief system. The church believed in the Ptolemaic System, it was said that the planet Earth was the center of the universe and all of the other planets, stars, and the Sun revolved, or circled, around it. The Heliocentric model of our solar system went against the church,“first summoned by the Roman Inquisition in 1616, Galileo was not questioned but merely warned not to espouse heliocentrism. Also in 1616, the church banned Nicholas Copernicus’ book “On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres,” for two decades the church tried to suppress their findings but they defended their work by just stating there could be more to both theories.Galileo also provided a letter from “Lord Cardinal Bellarmino[who had been Chief Theologian of the Holy Office] told me that since Copernicus’s opinion, taken absolutely was contrary to Holy Scripture, it could neither be held or defended.
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